Glossary to help you make more informed decisions...
WIG CAP CONSTRUCTION
Wig - A general term used to describe different types of products to replace hair.
Machine-Made Wigs - Wigs that are made from wefts of hair that are sewn on by machine.
Hairpiece - Hairpieces are worn in place of growing hair. They are partial pieces or add-ons used to create additional volume or length to existing hair.
Custom Wig - A custom wig is made to your particular specifications. The manufacturer will use any combination of hair fiber, cap, styles, color to get you exactly what you want in a wig that looks and feels like you.
Custom Quality Specialty Wig - A high quality wig (cranial prosthesis) that is designed with base materials so that the cap may be altered to achieve an excellent fit. It is very comparable to some special order custom hair pieces.
Daily Wear Cranial Prosthesis - This is a type of cranial prosthesis (wig) that can be removed each day. It can be secured with a special tape that can be removed at the end of the day. These prostheses will not require any type of bonding material.
Cap -The base material that gives the wig it's shape and a base to attach hair to.
C3 Construction - Construction utilizing the 3 C's: Cool - lets your scalp breathe; Comfortable - constructed with new, softer and lighter materials; Capless - so lightweight you won't even know it's there
Standard Cap - A standard cap is the most common and most affordable cap design. The layers of hair are open-wefted in the back and sides to allow for ventilation and have a closed lace layer at the crown. The hair at the crown is often lightly teased or crimped so you can not see down through the cap. This type of cap often gives the hair a natural lift at the crown for volume. However this cap can be a bit heavier and get warmer to wear this being less comfortable than a cap with a monofilament top.
Capless Wig - is very similar to the standard cap design. However, it does not have the closed lace layer at the crown. It is open-wefted in the back, sides, and crown. This allows for maximum ventilation and for the ability to pull your own hair through. It is also the lightest weight cap you can purchase.
Chemo Cap - Hair attached to elastic that fits securely on the head but hair is only attached from the temple down giving the "perfect illusion". This is suggested specifically worn by those with sensitive scalps or seek a lighter feel while wearing a cap or scarf.
Adjustable Cap - A wig cap construction with adjustable tabs that extend from the crown to the nape of the wig cap. Average wig cap can either be adjusted to a smaller or larger cap size.
Memory Cap - A wig cap that replaces the wide stretch lace used in most of today's wigs with a thinner, more resilient stretch material that actually molds to the shape of the head for a lighter, more secure fit.
Petite Cap Size
The petite cap size is generally the following measurements:
Circumference: Around the Head - 20"
Front to Back - 12 1/8"
Ear to Ear - 10 1/2"
Petite/Average Cap Size
The petite/average cap size is generally the following measurements:
Circumference: Around the Head - 21 1/4 "
Front to Back - 13 3/4
Ear to Ear - 13 1/4 "
Average Cap Size
The average cap size is generally the following measurements:
Around the Head - 21 1/2 - 22"
Front to Back - 14 1/4 - 14 1/2"
Ear to Ear - 13 1/2 "
Average/Large Cap Size
The average/large cap size is generally the following measurements:
Around the Head - 22 1/2" - 23"
Front to Back - 14 3/4 - 15"
Ear to Ear - 13 3/4 - 14"
Large Cap Size
The large cap size is generally the following measurements:
Around the Head - 23 1/4" - 24'
Front to Back - 15 1/4 - 15 1/2"
Ear to Ear - 14"
Monofilament/Mono-Top Wig - A Monofilament/Mono-Top Wig refers to fine, breathable nylon or silk mesh with hairs individually hand-knotted into the mesh. Disappears against the scalp allowing natural skin tone and appears as a natural looking part giving it more versatility in styling. It is recommended for hair loss patients, and allows comfort and excellent ventilation.
Lace Front - A wig made with a mesh insert in the front into which individual hairs are hand-tied. It creates a realistic looking hairline. When properly worn with special adhesive, it is almost undectable that it is not the wearer's own growing hair. They are more expensive and difficult to manage, and do not last as long as other wigs.
Velvet Front - A small piece of soft, velvety material inserted into the front of a wig to create a more comfortable fit at the hairline.
Human Hair Wigs -Wigs made of human hair primarily cut in India, China, and parts of Europe which are obtained and contracted through a factory for the specific purpose of making wigs/hairpieces.Wigs made with Human Hair are very durable, however they require more upkeep than synthetic wigs and must be styled on a regular basis. Generally speaking, although Human Hair wigs are much heavier than their Synthetic counterparts and more expensive, they can actually look and feel more authentic and are worth the money.
Unprocessed Hair - Human hair that has not been chemically treated.
100% European Human Hair - Is differentiated by genetics rather than geography. It actually refers to Caucasion hair. This is Human Hair that has retained the cuticle and has undergone a special process to prevent tangling and retain the quality of this extremely fine Caucasian hair. The structure of European hair is a bit finer, flatter and smoother, and more desirable. It has a silky texture and is usually available with a wave and very rarely curly. It comes in all colors from a very pale blond to jet-black. Because it is less plentiful it is more expensive.
Virgin Russian Hair - Due to its fine hair strands, easy movement, and amazing durability these qualities make this hair the most expensive and sough after hair in the world. This is hair that can cost up to $10,000 for a wig 16 inches long. It has finer strands. This is an excellent choice for those with thin hair.
Virgin Unprocessed - Very fine quality human hair in its original state which has not been chemically treated in anyway, (processing removes the cuticle ) only sanitized and blended. It has not been permed, colored or altered in any way. The cuticle goes in the same direction and is preserved to maximize it's special quality. Therefore, it is strong and natural in appearance. Virgin human hair wigs are the most natural looking and the most comfortable but just like human hair they tend to tangle. This is a good but expensive choice if you want the very finest human hair wig. Virgin European hair wigs are high in demand. It comes in short, medium and long styles, and is also used in Hairpieces and Extensions. Italian Hair - A less expensive choice is Italian hair. On the average Italian hair has a medium texture with a lot of body with the end of the hair being full and blunt. It varies from a slight body wave to a wavy texture. It comes in all colors from a very light almost white to jet-black.
Cyberhair - A revolutionary high spun nylon made to look, feel, wash, move, and reflect light just like human hair. One cannot tell the difference as the fiber is so real looking. This fiber is used on the First Women's Swim Wig and the First Wome's Intimacy System as this hair does not drag in the water like human hair. This is a much more sophisticated synthetic which needs moisture and it is suggested it be sprayed daily with a Cyberhair formula called Protection Plus which will help keep the hair from drying out and getting frizzy like most synthetic fibers.
Human Hair Blend - A combination of human hair and synthetic fiber. The synthetic fiber tends to hold it's shape after washing and the human hair looks natural and is more durable. The combination gives the wig more versatility and flexibility in styling. It is usually used in 25%, 35%, and 50% ratios to synthetic fibers.
Remi/Remy Human Hair - Refers to Human Hair (usually Indian in origin) Remy which is less expensive than European, Italian or Russian hair. The hair has been harvested from root to end with the cuticle all going in the same direction that prevents the hair from tangling and is very easy to care for. It may be colored or permed. It is soft and silky and is used for making higher quality wigs, extensions and hairpieces. This quality of hair is often used in a cranial prosthesis (wig). It looks very real, however, sometimes can frizz from its texture. Using an ionic straightening iron on the piece will smooth out the frizz.
Baby Hair - Is the small strands of hair, often curly at the base of the frontal hair line to add to a realistic look. Also baby hair can often camouflage the edge of the wig. Much of the time angora and/or baby Yak hair is used to replicate baby hair.
Textured Relaxed Human Hair - This is hair that is specially processed and is used in wigs and cranial prosthesis especially designed for most ethnicities including Latina, Persian, and African American Women.
Synthetic Hair - Kanekalon Fiber - The Kanekalon Fiber is a modacrylic fiber that closely resembles human hair composed of a combination of two monomers: acrylonitrile and vinyl chloride which are joined together in a process called Co-polymerization. Co-polymerization produces a dry resin which is in turn dissolved into a liquid state, or dope. This solution is forced through a multi-hole metal disk called an aspinnerette, then into a water bath where it coagulates to form continuous strands. These strands or filaments called "tow" are then dried and stretched and finally become fiber as we know it. It's especially formulated to produce an irregular shaped cross-section that is similar to human hair allowing the look, feel and performance characteristics of the real thing. It is also lighter in weight and more consistent than other synthetic fibers.
Synthetic Fiber - There are three types of synthetic fiber used to manufacture wigs, which are polyester, acrylic, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). They are not resistant to heat or styling products, and are available in many different lengths and styles.
Synthetic Hair Blend - A specially made synthetic fiber that is just like your own hair that you can curl or blow dry. All synthetic wigs are made with this fiber. It reflects the look of human hair and dries quickly. They are less expensive than human hair and are lifelike and durable.
Synthetic Wigs - Wigs made primarily of modacrylic fibers that have the look and feel of real hair. The fibers have style memory which allows the original styling to be restored in most cases by simply spraying with a water bottle and drying from underneath. They don't fade in color like human hair does. An additional advantage is that synthetic fibers are not porous and cannot absorb oders.
Part - Refers to a break where the hair is parted and is usually located at the center or side of the cap.
Skin Part - Refers to a strip of fabric, usually silk, along the part where the hair is threaded. It gives the appearance of the hair growing directly from the scalp. The part cannot be changed. Wigs with a skin part are more affordable than a full monofilament and still give you a very natural look.
Skin Top - These wigs, sometimes referred to as having a Monofilament Top, have a piece of thin latex of polyurethane inserted into the top of the wig with hair implanted to give a natural look.
Simulated Part - A part that is not clearly defined and usually at the center or side of the cap.
Multidirectional/Multidirectional Part - Higher quality skin top wigs which can be combed or parted in any direction, much like your own hair. It allows you to change the part to right, left or center as desired by wearer.
Hand-Tied - A term for individual hair fiber that is tied by hand onto the wig cap/base using a single knot. Offers styling flexibility and resembles the movement of natural hair.
Honeycomb Wefting - Can be found in either a full or partial hairpiece. Often referred to as an "Integration" piece it is made with large open holes designed to pull your own hair through.
Add-Ons - A partial hair piece - not a full wig. Hairpiece that temporarily attaches either by interlocking combs or butterfly clip to your own hair to add instant length, volume and texture.
Wiglet - A spot enhancer that is designed to work with your own hair to add volume or length in a specific area.
Top of the Head - 'Toppers' as they are often referred to is a partial piece that fits on the crown to be used to add volume for a fuller look. They come in many lengths and base sizes.
Fall - is a partial wig most often used to add length to a style and almost full coverage of the head while allowing plenty of ventilation and the guarantee of a secure fit. Unlike the heavy solid hard dome-like foundation of traditional Falls of the 60s and 70s that were positioned at the top and crown area of the head. There are three basic types: Full Falls, Headband Falls, Hat Falls: Full falls allow the wearer's own hair to show at the front and be blended into the hairpiece. Headband falls or 3/4 wigs are positioned 1" to 1 1/2"just behind the front and side hairlines allowing the blending of the front and sides of your hair in with the Fall to create a more voluminous natural looking head of hair; it usually connects easily to your own hair with a series of flex combs. It gives a realistic appearance of hair growing directly from the wearer's scalp.
Hat Falls - Often referred to as "Chemo Cap" or as 1/2 wigs", they have a bare cap on top held together by pieces of elastic in a crisscross design that fit securely on the head where the hair or wefts are attached from the temple down giving the "perfect elusion". This is suggested specifically worn by those with sensitive scalps or seek a lighter feel while wearing a cap or scarf.
Integration System - An integration hair system refers to the type of base material used and is ideal for women (or men) with thinning hair or diffused hair loss like that in Female Pattern Hairloss. An Integration System allows you to pull your existing, growing hair directly through the unit. This allows you to wear a custom hair replacement system without shaving your head. Your own natural, growing hair is combined with the hair in the system to create a more voluminous and complete head of hair. Depending on the thickness and fullness of your growing hair, there are a variety of different integration hair systems all with varying sizes and shapes of holes in the mesh.
Bleached Knots -The latest innovation in ventilation these days are called bleached knots. As the name is self-explanatory, these knots are put through a delicate bleaching process after being tied to the base with extremely tiny half knots. This removes most of the dark color and leaves a virtually invisible knot that really appears to be growing right from your scalp!
Blending -To achieve the most realistic color graduations in a final wig, hairpiece, or extension, multi-colors of fiber are mixed together. This process is called "hackling" or "blending."
Toupee Clip - For added security, this is a small clip with groves that is sewn into the base of a wig cap, add-on, fall, or partial. They come in several sizes and one must be careful when removing the wig from their head and not rush and carefully remove the hair that may still be in the clip or they will rip the hair. They are a wonderful adhesive - if you are careful and patient
Finger Clip - The lastest innovation in clip attachments. A removable small clip that is attached to the wig with strong two sided wig tape that can be moved to different areas on the cap. There is the consensus that the clip should be moved on a piece every 5-6 weeks to lessen the stress on the follicle attached to the clip.
Banana Comb - A banana comb is a long, 2-part, plastic hair clip with teeth on the inner side of each part that grasp the hair and snap closed at the top. Many wig companies take these clips and attach hair to them in various lengths and styles. When a person's own hair is pinned or pulled back in a short ponytail and the banana clip hairpiece is snapped closed over it, it creates the illusion of a ponytail or bustle effect down the back of the head
Butterfly Clip - Pressure sensitive butterfly shaped comb with interlocking teeth that attaches under your own hair. Simply press to open the teeth of the clip and it's ready to be inserted into your own hair.
Root Crimped - The hair is crimped at the base of the cap to create more "lift"; height and volume in the piece.
Ventilation - The art of sewing strands of either human hair or synthetic hair into the base of the wig cap
Wefted - A long string of hair fiber that is doubled over and sewn closely together.
Thin Wefting - A weft that has a single of layer of hair fiber spread apart which results in a lighter, cooler wig.
Inside Wefting - An cost effective alternative to a hand-tied ventilation. This machine-sewn fiber weft allows for softer napes and the ability for hair to lay flat in the back and nape.
Velvet Comfort Band - To enhance comfort and security, 1" to 1 1/2" of soft velvet-like fabric is placed at the inside front of wig cap.
Velcro® Sizing Adjustments - Two Velcro® tabs placed at the nape allow you to adjust your wig for a more comfortable fit.
Stretch Ribbon Lace - Used in the lining of a wig cap to add stretch and security.
Flexible, Open Ear Tabs - A soft piece of metal that allows to adjust the piece closer to the scalp for a more secure fit and to contour the face at your temple.
Cuticle - The cuticle is the outer layer of the hair folicle. It has three layers: a cuticle (the outer layer), a cortex (the middle layer containing keratin, moisture and melanin, which gives it its color), and a medulla, which is the center of the hair shaft.
Attachment Systems and Products for Wigs - Tape, adhesives, or other ways to attach hair temporarily or semi-permanently.
Adhesive - Available in either liquid roll-on or tape form, aids in securing wig to scalp.
Hair Enhancer - Often referred to as "Top Piece", Topper, Topette®, Halo. May or may not be a full cap size. It's designed to work with your own hair to add volume.
Hair Extensions - Hair strands, either one piece or multiple strands that are designed to add length and volume to your own hair. May either be temporary or semi-permanent and are available in synthetic or human hair.
Hair Frames - Your classic headband with heat resistant hair attached that can be styled for her desired look . Designed to work with the front of your hairline.
Heat Resistant Hair - A special blend of fiber that is heat resistant and will allow you to use heat appliances such as a blow dryer or hot rollers. However, keep in mind that hair that is not attached to the head has no natural oils nor breathes. Less heat is suggested to extend the shelf life of the piece. We suggest you use Carusso Steam Curlers more often than electric heated accessories.
Glass Loops - A flexible opening in the cap to allow for a more comfortable and secure fit when wearing eyeglasses. Few manufacturers can do this correctly as everyone's facial structure and measurement is individual there is no one measurement that works completely.
Pinking Shears - Scissors whose blades are a zigzag pattern instead of a straight edge. Especially designed for cloth or any fabric to prevent from easily fraying.
Bonding - A process by which a hair piece is glued on to the head for a period of time.
Extended Wear - Bonded pieces that are meant to stay on for 4-6 weeks at a time before needing to be taken off, cleaned, giving the scalp a moment to breathe before being replaced and re-glued.
Stays - A small piece of metal placed at the temple and nape to secure the fit of the wig.
Velcro Closures - Located at the nape of most of our wigs, these closures adjust easily for a custom fit.
Wig Liner - A lightweight mesh or nylon cap worn underneath the wig to help keep hair in place.
Open Ear Tabs - Flexible material at the ears which allow you to adjust and contour the wig to your face around the temple area.
Pre-Styled Wig - The wig has been pre-cut, shaped by the manufacturer.
Ready-To-Wear Wig - Refers to a wig or hairpiece that is pre-styled. What you see is what you get.
Nape - The area at the back of the neck at the base of the skull where the bottom of the wig fits against the head.
Part - A break at the top in the hair where the hair on each side of the parted area takes the opposite direction. In the case of a skin or Mono-Top, the hair may be parted all the way to the base and resemble a natural appearance of a scalp between the hairline.
Highlights - The process of using contrasting colors of hair to create a sunlit appearance. They may be light or heavy streaks blended throughout the entire wig or just at the front. Highlights are generally used less than a 50-50 porportion.
Frosted Color - A color effect that uses two contrasting colors in a 50%-50% equal ratio proportion to create a soft blended effect.
Professional Styling - Most wigs will require some cutting and styling to create the individual wearer's desired effect. A professional wig stylist who can help you achieve your look and teach you how to use various approved wig care products is preferred. Remember, you would be best to take off too little than too much as it will not grow back.
Alopecia - A medical term meaning hair loss.
Alopecia Areata - A patchy type of hair loss due to an autoimmune condition. Is a common cause of hair loss. It often starts with one or more small round bald patches on the scalp and can progress to total body hair loss.
Alopecia Totalis - Total hair loss on the scalp due to an autoimmune condition.
Alopecia Universalis - Hair loss all over the body due to an autoimmune condition.
Androgenetic Alopecia - A condition where hair is lost due to a genetic predisposition.
Autoimmune Condition - Arises from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells.
Comfy Grip - This is a product designed to wear under the wigs to keep them from shifting. I believe that if you can find a wig that can fit correctly on your head and you can secure it with clips or tape it will much more comfortable than wearing this around your head in addition to a wig.
Custom Quality - Indicates a high quality wig that is comparable to special custom ordered and designed hair pieces.
Hyperthyroid Condition - An overactive thyroid condition
Hypothyroid Condition - An underactive thyroid condition
Medical Cranial Hair Prosthesis - A wig that is designed especially for women with medically related hair loss.
Letter of Medical Necessity - This is a letter that may be required by the insurance company from a physician outlining the need of a product by a patient due to a medical condition.
Non-Slip Material - A special material that is built into the wigs to keep it from sliding and shifting.
Non-Surgical Hair Replacement Products - Any type of wig, hair piece, or cranial prosthesis, etc.
Transparent Tape - A double sided transparent tape may be used to secure the wig to the head.
Vacuum Base Wig - A wig designed to stay on by means of suction due to the customized fit.
Polyurethane Tabs - An incredibly resilient, flexible, and durable manufactured material that can take the place of paint, cotton, rubber, metal, and wood in thousands of applications across all fields. Polyurethane might be hard, like fiberglass, squishy like upholstery foam, protective like varnish, bouncy like rubber wheels, or sticky like glue. It is used on the perimeter of a cap to adhere tape or glue to for stronger security.
Comfort Security Patches - These are small patches made of a special material that transparent tape will adhere to. These patches can be sewn to areas of the cap so that tape can be used to provide more comfort and keep the wig from slipping. They can be made of a thin polyurethane or silk.
Heat Sensitive Material - This is a material that is used in the construction of a wig cap to prevent the cap from slipping and shifting. The material adheres to the head due to the heat that is released from the scalp producing a suction-like effect.
Lace Tape - Lace tape can be used for daily wear and is placed in small amounts to secure the lace material to the cap. It is recommended to use a citrus removing solution to remove the residual adhesive from the tape as it protect the lace material from ripping or shredding.
Letter of Medical Necessity - This is a letter that is sometimes required by insurance companies in order to reimburse patients for a "medical cranial hair prosthesis". Patients can request a letter of necessity from their physicians to provide to the insurance company.
Medical Cranial Hair Prosthesis - This is a specially designed wig with special features for comfort, natural appearance, and special needs of the medical hair loss patient.
Synthetic Root Colors - The synthetic fiber is darker at the root area and is lighter toward the ends.
Thin Skin Material - This is a material that is used in a specially designed cranial prosthesis. It has a very natural appearance and is extremely fine and thin. It produces an effect as if hair is naturally growing from the scalp. This is often used for bonding a wig onto the scalp with a specialized bonding glue that will hold it in place for six weeks before it will need to be taken off, cleaned and reattached with fresh glue.
Transparent Tape - This is a tape that is used to adhere to the poly-skin like material and scalp to provide extra security so that the wig will not shift. Few people are allergic. However, to be sure you will not have an adverse effect to the tape, take a small piece and place it on the top of your hand or arm for five (5) minutes. Make sure your skin is dry with no oils or moisturizer or the tape will not adhere correctly. If he area starts to itch, or burn, or when you remove the tape it is bright red, you are most likely allergic to the tape and should seek the advice of an experienced dermatologist for suggestions on another type of tape.
Material and processing technic for wigs and caps, how to tips for human hair and synthetic wigs.
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